Monday, January 23, 2006

انا وانت ......... وانفلونزا الطيور

في بداية افتتاح باكورة كتاباتي لقيت اني ابدأ بحاجة مفيدة علشان كدة قلت احاول اقدم حاجة مفيدة للي هيدخل هنا ويقرأ, ولان الايام دي في ذعر يجتاح العالم اسمة انفلونزا الطيور قلت اقدم خلفية علمية عنه مع وعد بتقديم ترجمة بالعربي قريبا لغير المتخصصين

Avian Influenza (Bird Flu)
Avian influenza in birds
Avian influenza is an infection caused by avian (bird) influenza (flu) viruses. These influenza viruses occur naturally among birds. Wild birds worldwide carry the viruses in their intestines, but usually do not get sick from them. However, avian influenza is very contagious among birds and can make some domesticated birds, including chickens, ducks, and turkeys, very sick and kill them.
migratory waterfowl, sea birds, or shore birds are generally responsible for introducing the virus into poultry. Infected birds shed influenza virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces. Susceptible birds become infected when they have contact with contaminated secretions or excretions or with surfaces that are contaminated with secretions or excretions from infected birds. Domesticated birds may become infected with avian influenza virus through direct contact with infected waterfowl or other infected poultry, or through contact with surfaces (such as dirt or cages) or materials (such as water or feed) that have been contaminated with the virus.
Incubation Period
The incubation period is usually 3 to 7 days, depending upon the isolate, the dose of inoculum, the species, and age of the bird.
Clinical Signs
Infections of HPAI result in marked depression with ruffled feathers, inappetence, excessive thirst, cessation of egg production, and watery diarrhea.
Infection with avian influenza viruses in domestic poultry causes two main forms of disease“low pathogenic” and “high pathogenic” forms on the basis of genetic features of the virus and the severity of the illness they cause in poultry, The “low pathogenic” form may go undetected and usually causes only mild symptoms (such as ruffled feathers and a drop in egg production). However, the highly pathogenic form spreads more rapidly through flocks of poultry.
Morbidity and Mortality
This form may cause disease that affects multiple internal organs and has a mortality rate that can reach 90-100% often within 48 hours.
Human infection with avian influenza viruses
The type designation (A, B, or C) is based upon the antigenic character of the M protein of the virus envelope and the nucleoprotein within the virus particle. Type A influenza virus is the most common type producing serious epidemics in humans. There are many different subtypes of type A influenza viruses. These subtypes differ because of changes in certain proteins on the surface of the influenza A virus (hemagglutinin [HA] and neuraminidase [NA] proteins). There are 16 known HA subtypes and 9 known NA subtypes of influenza A viruses. Many different combinations of HA and NA proteins are possible. Each combination represents a different subtype. All known subtypes of influenza A viruses can be found in birds.
Usually, “avian influenza virus” refers to influenza A viruses found chiefly in birds, but infections with these viruses can occur in humans. The risk from avian influenza is generally low to most people, because the viruses do not usually infect humans. However, confirmed cases of human infection from several subtypes of avian influenza infection have been reported since 1997. Most cases of avian influenza infection in humans have resulted from contact with infected poultry (e.g., domesticated chicken, ducks, and turkeys) or surfaces contaminated with secretion/excretions from infected birds. The spread of avian influenza viruses from one ill person to another has been reported very rarely, and transmission has not been observed to continue beyond one person.
“Human influenza virus” usually refers to those subtypes that spread widely among humans. There are only three known A subtypes of influenza viruses (H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2) currently circulating among humans. It is likely that some genetic parts of current human influenza A viruses came from birds originally. Influenza A viruses are constantly changing, and they might adapt over time to infect and spread among humans.
Influenza A (H5N1) virus – also called “H5N1 virus” – is an influenza A virus subtype that occurs mainly in birds, is highly contagious among birds, and can be deadly to them
During an outbreak of avian influenza among poultry, there is a possible risk to people who have contact with infected birds or surfaces that have been contaminated with secretions or excretions from infected birds.
Symptoms of avian influenza in humans have ranged from typical human influenza-like symptoms (e.g., fever, cough, sore throat, and muscle aches) to eye infections, viral pneumonia, severe respiratory diseases (such as acute respiratory distress), and other severe and life-threatening complications. The symptoms of avian influenza may depend on which virus caused the infection.
Studies done in laboratories suggest that the prescription medicines approved in the United States for human influenza viruses should work in treating avian influenza infection in humans. However, influenza viruses can become resistant to these drugs, so these medications may not always work. Additional studies are needed to demonstrate the effectiveness of these medicines.
Avian Influenza A (H5N1)
Avian influenza A (H5N1) in Asia and Europe
Influenza A (H5N1) virus – also called “H5N1 virus” – is an influenza A virus subtype that occurs mainly in birds, is highly contagious among birds, and can be deadly to them.
Outbreaks of avian influenza H5N1 occurred among poultry in eight countries in Asia (Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, South Korea, Thailand, and Vietnam) during late 2003 and early 2004. At that time, more than 100 million birds in the affected countries either died from the disease or were killed in order to try to control the outbreaks. By March 2004, the outbreak was reported to be under control. Since late June 2004, however, new outbreaks of influenza H5N1 among poultry were reported by several countries in Asia (Cambodia, China [Tibet], Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Malaysia, Mongolia, Russia [Siberia], Thailand, and Vietnam). It is believed that these outbreaks are ongoing. Influenza H5N1 infection also has been reported among poultry in Turkey Romania, and Ukraine. Outbreaks of influenza H5N1 have been reported among wild migratory birds in China, Croatia, Mongolia, and Romania.
Human cases of influenza A (H5N1) infection have been reported in Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Thailand, and Vietnam.
Human health risks during the H5N1 outbreak
H5N1 virus does not usually infect people, but more than 140 human cases have been reported by the World Health Organization since January 2004. Most of these cases have occurred as a result of people having direct or close contact with infected poultry or contaminated surfaces; however, a few cases of human-to-human spread of H5N1 have occurred.
Of the few avian influenza viruses that have crossed the species barrier to infect humans, H5N1 has caused the largest number of detected cases of severe disease and death in humans. In the current outbreaks in Asia and Europe, more than half of those infected with the virus have died. Most cases have occurred in previously healthy children and young adults. However, it is possible that the only cases currently being reported are those in the most severely ill people, and that the full range of illness caused by the H5N1 virus has not yet been defined.
So far, the spread of H5N1 virus from person to person has been rare and has not continued beyond one person. Nonetheless, because all influenza viruses have the ability to change, scientists are concerned that H5N1 virus one day could be able to infect humans and spread easily from one person to another. Because these viruses do not commonly infect humans, there is little or no immune protection against them in the human population. If H5N1 virus were to gain the capacity to spread easily from person to person, an
influenza pandemic (worldwide outbreak of disease) could begin.
No one can predict when a pandemic might occur. However, experts from around the world are watching the H5N1 situation in Asia and Europe very closely and are preparing for the possibility that the virus may begin to spread more easily and widely from person to person.
Treatment and vaccination for H5N1 virus in humans
The H5N1 virus that has caused human illness and death in Asia is resistant to amantadine and rimantadine, two antiviral medications commonly used for influenza. Two other antiviral medications, oseltamavir and zanamavir, would probably work to treat influenza caused by H5N1 virus, but additional studies still need to be done to demonstrate their effectiveness.
There currently is no commercially available vaccine to protect humans against H5N1 virus that is being seen in Asia and Europe. However, vaccine development efforts are taking place. Research studies to test a vaccine to protect humans against H5N1 virus began in April 2005, and a series of clinical trials is under way.

For the most current information about avian influenza and cumulative case numbers, see the World Health Organization (WHO) website at
For more information about influenza pandemics, see
For more information about H5N1 vaccine development process, visit the
National Institutes of Health website.

Tuesday, January 17, 2006

من هنا البداية

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
في بداية هذه المدونة احب ان اهدي كلمة للجميع
أصدقاء وأحباب التقيت بهم في رحلة الحياة كانوا بلسم للروح ونور للدرب وسعادة للحزن وهداية للمجهول أصحاب لن أنساهم و إن نسوني ولن اذكرهم إلا بكل خير مازالت صورهم تختزنها ذاكرتي ومازالت ضحكاتهم تسمعها أذني ومازالت أحزانهم وهمومهم تسكنني ، أيام جميلة رغم ما فيها من جروح وهموم وأحزان ، فرقنا الزمان كعادته دائماً مع الأحباب ، لكنني سأحاول أن أتحدى الزمان والمكان وأكتب ما سطرته يد هؤلاء الأصحاب لي ........ في يوم من الأيام قد يتصادف أن يقرائها بعض منهم وقد لا يقرأها الكثير ، لكن ذلك لن يمنعني من تذكر تلك الوجوه وتلك الأقلام التي سطرت في دفتر ذكرياتي أحلى الكلمات وأصدقها ولن أنسى تلك الرسائل التي وصلتني عبر بريد الأيام سأظل أذكركم مع كل شروق شمس وكل غروب .
أهدي كلماتي وأفكاري ونجاحي إلي كل صديق وقف بجانبي وشجعني علي أن اعبر طريق الحياة ، أهدي نجاحي إلي أبي والي أمي أملا في أن أكون قد رديت جزئ مما قدموه لي و أسعدتهم في تقدمي في مشوار حياتي .. كما اهدي عملي ونجاحي إلي كل من علمني حرفا وساعدني في أن أكون على ما أنا فيه .
أصدقائي كنت اقلب منذ فتره في دفاتري وأوراقي القديمة ، الذي لا يقراها ولا يعلم ما بها غير القليل جدا من أصدقائي ، أن لم يكن لا يعلمها سواي ، لذلك قررت وبعون الله ومشيئته أن أخرج من أوراقي وان أعلنها لكل أصدقائي .. و أيضا إن اجمع من أصدقائي ذكرياتهم ومواقفهم وحكاياتهم وان انشرها لكل الأصدقاء لكي يعمل الجميع ما بدخلنا من حب وصدق وحياه .. فالحب والصدق والحياة .. هي شعارنا الذي نعيش من اجله .
ولأن كل شيء له بداية فقد قرارنا أن نكون نقطة البداية للوصول للنهاية الجميلة والسعيدة .